As aircraft design evolved from early wood and fabric to sophisticated engineered materials, chemical technology provided material that met design requirements. Different metal alloys using aluminum and titanium were developed to provide strength, light weight, high-temperature stability, and corrosion resistance to aircraft.
Carbon fibers belong to the most important raw materials of today's textile industry.
Aramid (aromatic polyamide) fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.
Titanium alloy have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures), light weight, extraordinary corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand extreme temperatures.
Rockets have special material requirement because of the extreme conditions under which they operate. One example is a special tile in strategic locations protects the space shuttle (1980s) from high temperatures on reentry. After an exotic zirconium composite material was tried, the final tile design used silica fibers derived from common sand.